Selasa, 16 Juni 2009

Modals in the past form

Modals in the Past form dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah kata bantu pengandaian dalam bentuk lampau.
Modals in the past are :
1. Could
2. Would
3. Should
4. Shall
*Could + Verb base
We can use this expression : to offer suggestion or possibilities.
Example :
Nia : I’m having trouble with math.
Rizki : Why don’t you ask Novita ?
Perhaps she could help you.
*Might + Verb base
Use might to tell possibillities.
Example :
Helda : Why is Rio taking the bus to get home.
Fany : He might get a flat time.

*Would + verb base
Use would for an action that was repeated regulary in the past.
Example :
Yoan : What did you usually do on holidays ?
Lia : I would visit my grandparents In the village, but how not anymore.
*Would + Mind + V-ing
Use would to express polite request.
Example :
Mrs. Lady : Would you mind posting the letter ?
Nita : No, Not at all.
*Should + Verb base
Example :
Nisa : Ima , you should go to library now ?
Ima : O.k.

Passive voice

1. Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.
Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).
Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

Example: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)
Examples of Passive Level: lower intermediateTense Subject Verb Object
Simple Present Active: Nina writes a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by Nina.
Simple Past Active: Nina wrote a letter.
Passive: A letter was written by Nina.
Present Perfect Active: Nina has written a letter.
Passive: A letter has been written by Nina.
Future I Active: Nina will write a letter.
Passive: A letter will be written by Nina.
Hilfsverben Active: Nina can write a letter.
Passive: A letter can be written by Nina.

Examples of Passive Level: upper intermediateTense Subject Verb Object
Present Progressive Active: Nina is writing a letter.
Passive: A letter is being written by Nina.
Past Progressive Active: Nina was writing a letter.
Passive: A letter was being written by Nina.
Past Perfect Active: Nina had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written by Nina.
Future II Active: Nina will have written a letter.
Passive: A letter will have been written by Nina .
Conditional I Active: Nina would write a letter.
Passive: A letter would be written by Nina.
Conditional II Active: Nina would have written a letter.
Passive: A letter would have been written by Nina.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects Level: intermediate

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on. Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2
Active: Nina wrote a letter to me.
Passive: A letter was written to me by Nina.
Passive: I was written a letter by Nina.

Simple present tense

Untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan , peristiwa , atau kejadian yang telah terjadi hari ini , atau perbuatan yang terjadi saat ini , atau kejadian yang berulang kali atau merupakan suatu kebiasaan sehari- hari.
Rumus :1. S + To be ( am, is , are) + ….
2.S + V1 + (s / es ) + ….
Example :
1. She is very happy.
2. He is diligent student.
3. They are there.
4. You are student.
5. He goes school every morning.
6. She does her homework.
7. Barra cooks in the kitchen.
8. They study English every week.
9. You can come to my house.

a. Verbal Sentence
Patterns :
(+) S + V1 (s/ es) + O
(-) S + do/ does + Not + V1 + O
(?) Do / does + S + V1 + O

Example :

(+) She does her homework.
(-) She does not do her homework.
(?) Does she do her homework ?

b. Nominal Sentence / Non Verbal Sentence
Patterns :
(+) S +To be (am / is / are ) + ….
(-) S + To be (am / is / are) + Not + ….
(?) To be ( am / is / are ) + S + …. ?
Example :
(+) She is very happy.
(-) She is not very happy.
(?) Is she very happy ?

Noun phrases

- 1. Noun phrases is constraction function as subject and object .
2. Noun phrases is either a single noun or pronoun or any group of words
containing a noun or a pronoun that function together as a noun or
pronoun, as the subject or object of a verb.
- Kinds of noun phrases :
a. Noun + Noun, example : Office boy
b. Verb + Noun, example : Take a bath
c. Gerund + Noun, example : Throwing ball
d. Pronoun + Noun, example : My book
e. Adjective + Noun, example : Black board
f. Determiner + Noun, example : A pen
- The noun phrases in English composed petenhally of 3 parts,
there are :
a. Head : The most usual kind of head of a noun phrases.
b. Pre Modification : Consists of a number of word classes in a specific order.
c. Post Modification : Must commonly used not by specific word classes or subclasses.

Example 1 :

Shaggy : Do you like books ?
Jojo : Yes, I like them.
Shaggy : Do you like books over there?
Jojo : Yes, they are nice.
Shaggy : Do you like the book which I brought yesterday?
Jojo : Yes, I like it.

Example 2 :

- Nicko was late
( Nicko is the noun phrase functioning as the subject of the verb)

- Some noun phrase are short :
* The student

- Some are long :
* The very tall education consultant.

Direct speech and indirect speech

*Direct Speech
Refers to reproducing another persons’s exact words..
We use questation marks.

*Indirect speech
Refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s word.

Not all of the exact words are used :
Verb forms and pronouns my change.

*There are 3 kinds of Indirect Speech:
1. Command / request ( permintaan )
Direct : Mrs. Venita said to vita “ don’t worry about it “.
Indirect : Mrs. Venita told vita not to worry about it.
2. Question ( pertanyaan )
Direct : yona asked “ Are you a Journalist ?”
Indirect : yona asked if / whether I was a Journalist.
3. Statement ( pernyataan )
Direct : Mr. Yoan said “ I worked hard yesterday “.
Indirect : Mr. yoan said that he worked hard the day before.

Gratitude , compliment, and congratulation

1. Expressing Gratitude

Expressions of thanking
1. Thanks / Thank you.
2. Thanks a lot / Thank you so much.
3. Thank for your help / for the ride.
4. I’d like to thank you. -

Respons yg dapat di gunakan antara lain :
1. You’re welcome.
2. That’s all right.
3. No big deal / No problem.
4. That’s fine / My pleasure.
5. Not at all / Never mind.
Example :
Tiara : Nina, here is your book. Thank you.
Nina : you’re welcome. Are you sure you don’t need it anymore ?
Tiara: Absolutely.

2. Compliment


1. Wow, good job ! / Good grades!
2. Nice try ! / Nice work !
3. Keep up the good work !
4. What a nice dress ! / Outfit !

1. Thank you.
2. Really ?
3. I will.
4. Thanks a lot.

Example :
Novi : Yesterday I bought this novel. It’s for you
Anita : Oh, how kind you are . Thanks.
Novi : It is nothing.

3. Congratulation


1. Congratulations !
2. Happy birthday !
3. Happy Lebaran day ! / Merry Christmas !
4. Happy new year ! / Happy valentine !


1. Thank you
2. Thanks a lot .
3. Happy Lebaran day ! / merry Christmas too.
4. Happy New year/ Valentine too.

Example :
Sera : Nina ,Congratulations !
You won the English speech contest. Your English is so amazing.
Nina : Thank you.

Minggu, 14 Juni 2009

News item

Is a report of recent occurences; information of something that has lately taken place, or of something before unknown ; recent information about specific and timely events.

Other information
- Information about recent events or happening, especially as reported by newspaper,periodical,radio or television.

Special funcition
- To inform read or listener or viewer about events of the day which are considered news worth or important.

Generic structure
1. News worthy event :
- Recount the event in summary form.
2. Background event
- Elaborate what happened, to whom i waht circumstances.
3. Source :
- Comments by participants in witness and authorities expert on the event.
4. Form :
- Using simple present & past tense
( but generally prefers simple present tense )


- Short , brief information about story captured in head line.
- Use material process to retell the event.
- Using saying verb like say,tell,inform.
- Focus on circumstances.
- Use of projecting verbal process in sourcce stager.
- Using action verbs, like,escape,go,run.

Example ( a brief sentence cut of some news item ) :
1. His familiy has had no news of his wherebout for months.
2.The job requirements weren news to him.
3.The news of the famous actor's death was greatly exaggerated.

Surprise or disbelief

Surprise or disbelief is on expression that we show / say when know / see something that rather difficult to believe....

Example : Adit : " look I got "
Ais : " that's very suprising "
Adit : " I don't know why "
Ais : " Perhaps you did wrong number "
When get a suprising fact, you can say those to tell other people :
- do you know what ?
- believe it or not ?
- you may not believe it,but..
-can you believe ?

Respon : - really ?
- are you sure / joking ?
- where ? show me

There are some ways to express surprise :
- never
- oh no
- you're kidding
- what a surprise
- my good ness
- ect

Narrative text

# Narrative text is a kind of text which used to amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginery experiences in difference ways.

#Text Organization: - Orientation (who were involved in the story, when and where)
- Complication (a problem arises followed by other problems)
- Resolution (solution to the problem)

The Characteristics of Narrative Text:
~ mostly using past tense
~ start with adverb, such as: long time ago, once upon a time, in a faraway land, etc
~ using conjunction, like: then, after that, before, etc


Goldilocks and the Three Bears

Once there were three bears that lived in a house in the woods : a papa bear, a mama bear, and a baby bear. One morning they decided to take a walk before breakfast to let their porridge cool.

A little girl named Goldilocks lived with her mother nearby. Golddocks took a walk through the woods and found the bear’s house. She snielled the porridge in the kitchens and went inside. Goldilocks tasted the porridge in each bowl and finally ate up the porridge in the small bowl. Then she sat on a big chair, but she didn’t like it, because it was hard. Afterwards she sat on the small chair, and it was just right. But while she was sitting on it she broke it. After eating the porridge, Goldilocks felt full and sleepy, and then she went upstairs. There she found a small bed. She lay down on it and fell asleep.

While she was sleeping, the three bears came home. When they went into the kitchen, they got very surprised. Someone had tasted their porridge, even eaten up baby bear’s porridge, while they were taking a walk. Moreover the poor baby bear was upset when he found that his little chair broke into pieces. When they went upstairs, they found out that Goldilocks was sleeping. Baby bear cried out, “Someone has been sleeping in my bed and here she is!”

Goldilocks woke up when she saw the three bears; she jumped out of bed and ran out of the house to her home. Never again did she make herself at home in anyone else’s house.


Most spore invitation are in the farm of question they often begin with will,would,would you like to,would you care to,etc

Offerins invitation
->Would you like to come to the restaurant this evening?
->Will you join us?
->Would you care to have dinner with us tonight?
->Could you come to a party at my place tomorrow?
->I wander whether you would care to come on a picnic with us next week?

Accepting invitation
->Yes,I'd love very much.
->Thank you.
->Yes,with pleasure.

->If you don't mind,i'd rather not.
->Thank you,i'm busy,may be next time.
->I have got another appointment.
->I'm sorry.
->I've lost to work to do

Finite verb

A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages in which it occurs. Finite verbs can form independent clauses, which can stand by their own as complete sentences.

The finite forms of a verb are the forms where the verb shows tense, person or singular plural. Non-finite verb forms have no person, tense or number.

I go, she goes, he went - These verb forms are finite.

To go, going, gone - These verb forms are non-finite.

In most Indo-European languages, every grammatically complete sentence or clause must contain a finite verb; sentence fragments not containing finite verbs are described as phrases or minor sentences. In Latin and some Romance languages, however, there are a few words that can be used to form sentences without verbs, such as Latin ecce, Portuguese eis, French voici and voilĂ , and Italian ecco, all of these translatable as here ... is or here ... are. Some interjections can play the same role. Even in English, a sentence like Thanks for your help! has an interjection where it could have a subject and a finite verb form (compare I appreciate your help!).

In English, as in most related languages, only verbs in certain moods are finite. These include:

  • the indicative mood (expressing a state of affairs); e.g., "The bulldozer demolished the restaurant," "The leaves were yellow and stiff."
  • the imperative mood (giving a command).
  • the subjunctive mood (expressing something that might or might not be the state of affairs, depending on some other part of the sentence).

Verb forms that are not finite include:


Advertisment have 2 meaning :

1 . Is a comercial solicitation designed to sell some comodity , service or similiar .
- Companies try to sell their products using.
Advertisment in form or palacards , television , sports and print publication.

2 . Is a public notice
- The city council placed an advertisment in the local newspaper in informs it residents of the
forthcom in road works.

Advertisment is refers to all people many advertisment are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and service through the creation and reinforcement of brand image " N " barand loyality.